Christmas in Ireland, as I remember, is different from how Christmas was celebrated by our forefathers in the 19th century.
By the time I was born in the 1960's, Ireland had adopted many English and European customs and festivities, such as Christmas trees, plum puddings, and Santa Claus.
For those of us of Irish descent throughout the globe maintaining our old traditions is important to us. And so, this post is dedicated to recounting the old rural traditions centered around Christmas time in Ireland.
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The Evolution of Irish Christmas Traditions
Ireland's Christmas traditions evolved and changed over the years, as rural dwellers moved to the larger cities during the 20th century.
On Christmas Eve, I always remember watching Eamon Kelly (1914-2001), the great Irish seanachai (or storyteller) on television. He sat in his rocking chair by a blazing fire, recounting stories of Christmas times past.
I sat with my parents and sisters, mesmerized by his lilting, Kerry accent, and his magical tales of times, long gone. His stories usually began.... "In my father's time....."
And so, I dedicate this post to the ancient Christmas traditions of rural Ireland, to recreate the festive celebration ..." of our grand-fathers' and great-grandfathers' time."
Preparation for Christmas began during Advent. Men and women shared the rituals of Christmas cleaning.
Women folk concentrated on the interior of the house, while the men applied a fresh coat of white wash to the exterior of their little, thatch cottages.
Decorating the house required holly and lots of it. Children scoured the hills for the red-berried bushes which grow wild in Ireland.
Sprigs of holly were placed over pictures, on mantles as deocrations, on window sills, and wherever the woman of the house got the notion to display it.
The American tradition of hanging a holly wreath on the door at Christmas time, can be traced back to 19th century Irish settlers.
The man of the house usually headed to the nearest big town, to "bring home the Christmas." Extra provisions, and special treats such as tea and sugar might be purchased. Those wealthy enough to hold an account with a shop-keeper, might return with a gift from the merchant. This was called the "Christmas box."
Those with relatives who had emigrated to America, might be lucky enough to receive a Christmas letter from across the ocean with news of their loved ones, or maybe even a few dollars to spread some Christmas cheer.
Many Americans believe the Irish only settled in America after the start of the Great Famine in 1845. This catastrophe opened the flood gates of immigrants to America, but prior to the Famine, a steady trickle of Irish left their native home in search of a better future. The "American letter" was the highlight of Christmas for many poor, Irish families.
Christmas Eve was a special day in rural Ireland. All work finished by midday.
After the evening meal, the table was re-set for three with a large raisin and caraway seed bread loaf, a pitcher of milk and a candle to light the meal for the Holy Family.
The door latch was left open, and a grand fire was set before retiring to bed. Keeping holy visitors warm was a must. A table was set with food for the Holy Family. This tradition is known as the laden table.
A candle was placed in every window of the house. A girl named Mary was chosen to light the first candle of Christmas. If there was no Mary in the house, which would have been a very rare case, the honor was bestowed upon the youngest child. This custom dates back to penal times in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Candles burned in the windows of country cottages, lighting the way for Mary and Joseph should they pass on this holiest of holy nights. Tiny pinpoints of light scattered across the darkened countryside.
In this age of electric and neon lights, it is difficult to imagine the utter darkness of the Irish countryside in the 19th century. Few people lit candles on a regular evening, to save money.
Most sat by the light of a turf fire, only lighting a tallow candle intermittently to guide their way in the darkness. On the holiest night of the year, flickering flames beckoned in every window, lighting the way for the Christ Child.
The candle in the window was lit for the twelve nights of Christmas, including on Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, December 26th, and New Years Eve.
In the morning a cow horn echoed through the stillness, calling the faithful to early mass. After the final blessing, everyone took turns to visit the crib in the church.
After praying devoutly, a wisp of straw was usually "borrowed" from Jesus' crib, and retained for luck throughout the coming year.
Many rural Irish people visited a graveyard on Christmas morning, to recognize their loved ones who have gone before them.
Christmas was a family day centering around a large meal. For those that could afford the luxury of meat, spiced beef or goose was the highlight of the Christmas dinner menu.
Stories were told, and a quiet drink was enjoyed in the company of family.
Saint Stephen's Day
Once Christmas Day passed, the revelry began. The day after Christmas is called St. Stephen's Day in Ireland. Children and adults dressed up in straw costumes, visiting neighbors to perform and ask for money and treats. These mummers were, and still are, called "The Wren Boys."
A wren boy procession happened in many Irish towns in years gone by. This tradition continues in the town of Dingle in County Kerry.
Story telling, dancing and parties in the homes of neighbors and relatives, kept everyone busy and entertained for the full twelve days of Christmas.
Women's Little Christmas
Finally, on January 6th, the last day of Christmas, the women of Ireland were treated like royalty. This day was, and still is, known as "Women's Little Christmas."
The men folk dutifully prepared a fine meal for their wives, mothers and daughters to show their gratitude for their tireless work throughout the busy Christmas season.
And so, there you have it - a short synopsis of an old Irish Christmas. I love how Christmas Eve centered on the birth of Jesus. Hope you all have a wonderful Christmas.
As we say in Ireland nollaig shona duit (pronounced null-ig hun-ah ditch) which means merry Christmas.
More Irish Holidays to Explore
Here are some more ramblings about Irish holidays that you might like to check out.
Thanks for following my recipes and ramblings.
Slán agus beannacht,
(Goodbye and blessings)
Mairéad -Irish American Mom
Pronunciation - slawn ah-gus ban-ock-th
Mairéad - rhymes with parade
Here are some more posts you might like to explore to learn about how to celebrate Christmas, Irish style....
- Spiced Red Cabbage
- White Chocolate Peppermint Truffles
- Cranberry White Chocolate Chip Christmas Cookies
- Chocolate Dipped Holiday Strawberries
- Mixed Spice - A Traditional Festive Baking Ingredient in Ireland
- Perfect Mini Cheesecakes For Any Party
- Christmas Pinwheel Sandwiches For The Festive Season
- Christmas Chocolate Yule Log
- Homemade Mincemeat
- Cauliflower Cheese
- Cider Glazed Carrots
- How To Light A Christmas Pudding